National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Transportation Research Board; Executive Office; TRB Executive Committee


TRB has released Critical Issues in Transportation 2019. In this report, which is updated periodically by the TRB Executive Committee, a series of challenging questions are posed to explore issues and opportunities that may arise 10 to 20 years into the future. These questions, 63 in all, have been organized into 12 topic areas and provide a way to frame future areas of research, policy analysis, and debate. Critical issues identified in this report deserve attention because of transportation’s central role in serving individuals and society. This document serves to sharpen society’s collective understanding of transportation and its ramifications, while informing decisions by individual citizens and officials in both the public and private sectors. The issues have been identified and documented from a U.S. perspective, and are also common across developed nations.[read full description]


Transportation and Infrastructure — About Research

Transportation and Infrastructure — Administration and Management

Transportation and Infrastructure — Aviation

Transportation and Infrastructure — Bridges and Other Structures

Transportation and Infrastructure — Construction

Transportation and Infrastructure — Data and Information Technology

Transportation and Infrastructure — Design

Transportation and Infrastructure — Economics

Transportation and Infrastructure — Education and Training

Transportation and Infrastructure — Energy

Transportation and Infrastructure — Environment

Transportation and Infrastructure — Finance

Transportation and Infrastructure — Freight Transportation

Transportation and Infrastructure — Geotechnology

Transportation and Infrastructure — Highways

Transportation and Infrastructure — History

Transportation and Infrastructure — Hydraulics and Hydrology

Transportation and Infrastructure — Law

Transportation and Infrastructure — Maintenance and Preservation

Transportation and Infrastructure — Marine Transportation

Transportation and Infrastructure — Materials

Transportation and Infrastructure — Motor Carriers

Transportation and Infrastructure — Operations and Traffic Management

Transportation and Infrastructure — Passenger Transportation

Transportation and Infrastructure — Pavements

Transportation and Infrastructure — Pedestrians and Bicyclists

Transportation and Infrastructure — Pipelines

Transportation and Infrastructure — Planning and Forecasting

Transportation and Infrastructure — Policy

Transportation and Infrastructure — Public Transportation

Transportation and Infrastructure — Railroads

Transportation and Infrastructure — Safety and Human Factors

Transportation and Infrastructure — Security and Emergencies

Transportation and Infrastructure — Society

Transportation and Infrastructure — Terminals and Facilities

Transportation and Infrastructure — Vehicles and Equipment

Suggested Citation

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Critical Issues in Transportation 2019. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

At a 13-story office tower under construction in Hollywood that will soon serve as the headquarters of Netflix, two floors of parking are designed for a different future: As the need for parking dwindles, that parking space can be easily converted into new office space.

Even today, parking garages are typically underused. In the not-too-distant future, car shares, self-driving cars, increased investment in transit, or simple behavioral change could all shift the amount of parking people think they need. And the U.S. also has far more parking than necessary–in Seattle, for example, there are five parking spaces for every resident. Architects and city planners are increasingly realizing that valuable city space could be put to better use than storing cars.

“There are 500 million parking spaces in the United States and [325 million] people,” says Andy Cohen, co-CEO of Gensler, the architecture firm that designed the Hollywood office tower. “Think about all that real estate, all that attention to parking, that could be revitalized and reused for the future of our cities.”

In downtown Boston, a parking lot will become the site of a 30-story high-rise with affordable housing. In Wichita, Kansas, a former parking garage was converted into an apartment building in 2018. Near downtown Cincinnati, a former parking garage is now a hotel. The U.K.-based organization Make Shift transformed an empty parking garage in Brixton into a new hub for small businesses in 2015, and in 2018 converted a seven-story parking garage in London into studios for artists, coworking offices, and community space. This type of conversion isn’t new–a “hotel for autos” built in Manhattan in the 1930s was converted into a warehouse a decade later, and then became apartments. But it’s happening at a faster rate now, and, increasingly, architects are designing new buildings with a vision of a future of fewer cars.

“We’re kind of at this interesting moment right now,” says Kristen Hall, a senior urban designer at the architecture firm Perkins + Will. “We’re probably going to be seeing full absorption of autonomous vehicles on the streets in anywhere from 10 to 30 years, and a lot of the financing for projects is on a 30-year basis. So if you’re a developer looking at building a parking garage and you don’t really know if you’re going to be able to finance or have a consistent revenue stream for a parking garage for the next 30 years, we’re finally at that point where we’re actually having a lot of developer clients who are questioning the financial feasibility of building parking garages.”….

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future-proof parking garages can easily morph into offices or housing

by FastCompany

OpenFOAM understand the challenges of modern companies workflow. Our long term goal is building bridges between top-class development and real practice. In the past we have received many requirements on providing and supporting OpenFOAM® software under Microsoft Windows. As a result, we have delivered to the market OpenFOAM® for Windows.OpenFOAM® for Windows is fully supported, see General OpenFOAM® Support. OpenFOAM® for Windows is maintained regularly updated together with latest OpenFOAM® versions.

可以安裝window10/7 的另一個流體力學設計模擬程式

MicroCFD currently offers a free STL file viewer, a 2D and axisymmetric virtual wind tunnel, and a 3D virtual wind tunnel. The virtual wind tunnel software is offered with 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year licensing terms after a 14-day trial period; the educational edition is free. Discounted multi-year licensing is available upon request. Please select one of the following for further details:

這是一個基於 STL檔的風場(風洞)模擬視覺系統。普通人可以免費試用14天,學生則是免費。可以把東西整體設計好,再善用時間統一驗證。




Elmer Down load page :



Elmer is an open source multiphysical simulation software mainly developed by CSC – IT Center for Science (CSC). Elmer development was started 1995 in collaboration with Finnish Universities, research institutes and industry. After it’s open source publication in 2005, the use and development of Elmer has become international.

Elmer includes physical models of fluid dynamics, structural mechanics, electromagnetics, heat transfer and acoustics, for example. These are described by partial differential equations which Elmer solves by the Finite Element Method (FEM).

These pages are intended to give basic information on the Elmer software. The content of the pages is rather static, For more concurrent information visit the discussion forum and wiki at 


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